来楚生（1903—1975），原名稷，号然犀。别号很多，有负翁、1 技、木人、非叶、楚凫、怀旦等，晚处易字初生，亦作初升。书斋名有然犀室、安处楼。浙江萧山人。书法拙中寓巧，草书和隶篆最为人称道。篆刻远师秦汉，近踵吴熙载、赵之谦、吴俊卿、齐璜等大家，而能不落前人窠臼，自出重生 意，开创了1 代印风。西泠印社副社长，当代书画篆刻大家钱君陶先生曾云：“来氏刻印七十岁前后所作突变，朴质老辣，雄劲苍古，得不曾 有。虽二吴（按：指吴熙载、吴俊卿），亦当避舍，齐白石自谓变法，然斧凿之痕，造作之态犹难免诮，二十世纪七十年代能独立称雄于印坛者，唯楚生1 人而已。”可谓最恰当的评论。
来楚生少时归里读小学，受环境陶冶 ，已嗜书画文学，於杭州宗文中学毕业後，继母欲使进北京大学习法律，因祖父逝世耽搁不果，改入上海美术专科学校学国画，得偿所愿。时潘天寿先生任教其间，先生深致倾慕，书画均受其影响。美专毕业後居杭州，潘公亦移杭州执教，由是过从请教益密。抗战爆发，挈家迁沪，以书画篆刻鬻艺自给。後改任教职，以维家计。尝与同道组织东南书画社，定期雅集，切磋艺事。来楚生1921年考入上海美术专科学校。1924年毕业后曾在杭州与潘天寿、姜丹书、唐云等人组织莼社从事书画活动。1937年移居上海，组织东南书画社，曾任上海美术专科学校及新华艺术专科学校教师。1946年在上海“中国画苑”举行个展。1956年任上海中国画院画师。1962年调上海文史馆。中国美术家协会会员。 曾任美协上海分会理事，上海书法篆刻研讨 会常务理事 。
和所有书画兼擅的艺术家1 样，吴昌硕的得意弟子来楚生对于毛笔的掌控可谓炉火纯青。他具有十分出色的外型 能力和内敛、蕴藉丰富的笔墨处理，看似简单的线条富于韧性，而大片的墨色晕化自然，变化出预料 以外 的神韵 ，这使得他的许多作品在简简单单中意味无量 。来楚生承续的是吴昌硕书、画、印兼修的传统，他在三方面的涵养 甚为齐平，难分轩轾，是师法吴昌硕诸人中取得较大突破的一名 。其书法拙中寓巧，特别 草书和隶书最为人称道，糅合六朝碑版、造像、汉木简等多种要素 于行草、隶体当中 ，楷体又受其师潘天寿影响，既不失朴拙浑厚之风，更有圆润流畅之致，洵为1 代大家。来氏篆刻远师秦汉，近踵吴熙载、赵之谦、吴昌硕、齐白石等大家，然能不落窠臼，自出新意。其肖形印更是融汉画像、古肖形印为1 炉，在印坛上冠绝古今，无出其右。
来楚生先生在书法艺术上是一名 多能高手。就书体而言，正、草、篆、隶皆工，尤以草、隶冠绝1 时。来先生的行书，取法黄道周，然后旁通曲引，泛滥诸家，终成自家面目。结体跌宕欹侧，时出新致，字之大小长短，疏密斜正，极富姿势 。用笔则深厚雄奇，锐利方折，精神外映，风采焕发，颇具阳刚之美。其隶书也是个性鲜明、风貌独具。尤得力于汉碑、木简和金农。结体雄壮 骀荡，纵逸率真，用笔奔放而具藏锋之妙，字形错落生动而无浮滑之感。他的波磔、轻重、长短，富于变化。撇的收笔常重顿而迅翻，捷而无力 ，有高度的技巧和特色。
来楚生先生的篆刻，以古玺汉印为本，辅以晚清流派，布局参差有致，奇趣扑人，刀法峻利爽洒，瑰奇雄劲。贵能在吴让之、吴昌硕、齐白石诸大家林立之际，另辟新径，自成面目。先生之印看似乱头粗服，信手凿来，实则每方印都是经反复推敲后方奏刀，疏密、参差、呼应、真假 等艺术手法，先生均用之纯熟 。来先生的肖形印更是脍炙人口，除生肖、佛像、人像，还有花卉、草虫及成语故事等，均笔简意赅，神态毕具。先生肖形印，运刀极具稳、准、狠三法，其意境隽永的肖形印，是经对物象的精细观察，加以提炼、夸张、升华的结果。
“初升”是他暮年 常用不着字，特别 喜欢将“升”字写成“门”字上边加二短横。“初升” 他曾多次刻印，朱白大小兼备，各有千秋。此印最在的特点是用刀流走自然，似乎漫不经心，信手拈来。“初”字改摆布 结构为上下结构，“升”字借边两扇门1 高1 低，错落有致。“初”字两根斜笔与“升”字两直笔在对比中得到统1 。全印下部留红较多，但为了不使平淡、板滞，下部边缘用刀直切印边形成 1 种弯势，于大块红地上略施击技出现零星白底，构成 1 种苍茫的残破美。 “吴郡岂斋张永恺印”印文分为摆布 两行，字体大小不拘任意安插，十分自然。这方印，与另1 方式样差不多的长方形白文自用印“楚生1 字初生又字初升”，有异曲同工之妙，取古玺摆布 逼边的意趣，两头 留红显得十分自然生动。这方自用印在刻制过程中还有1 段小插曲。据他的先生 张用博回忆，此印刻成后，他嫌两头 留红太多便随机应变，在两头 补加1 条直线。这条直线实在大有道理，如细心 研讨 ，可发现可发。现直线上端倚右，下端傍左，并非是垂直线条，为了打破平衡，又在两面三刀端分加别用刀角敲出几许刀痕。这样竟使1 根普通的直线，成了联系摆布 两边的，富有感情色彩的灵动的线条，成为印面不可缺少的组成间分。作者还在此印摆布 两侧边略施冲刀，使边线内陷，形成 左侧 印文与右侧 相通，这1 切也都是为了平中求奇，求得变化。来氏的章法、刀法的确有独到的成功的地方 。有《来楚生画集》、《来楚生法书集》、《然犀室肖形印印存》行世。
“处厚”1 印语出《老子》，这二字他也曾多次制成朱白文印。在1 方折文“处厚”的印款中“处其厚，不处其薄”，这也是来氏的艺术观点的体现。按普通 规律来讲，篆刻创作中以对1 印跑龙套、小篆杂陈，也不宜将不同风格、结构的书体生硬凑合在一同 。此印“处”字出自《井人钟》，此钟中另有1 个“厚”字，只是较狭长。作者便舍弃此字，而另在《鼎》中找1 个较为敦厚的“厚”字，二字虽不同器，但经过作者的提炼消化，却使两字写得浑然1 体。1 长1 短，错落变化。“处”之“虎”头中有1 长方形空白，正好与“厚”字下部大口相故呼应。“厚”字长线条逼边，由于 采用残边手法避免了两直线反复 单调之感来楚生印章中的留空、（留红）残边颇具特色，值得我们细细玩味。
“息交以绝游”1 印，章法奇特，上边的“息、绝”二字特大且逼边，“交”字较窄小，头顶“息”字形成 险象，使人有惊心动魄之感。“游”字也顶于“绝”字之下，让小小的“以”字镶嵌其中，全印两头 留空，构成 密其外而疏其中的景象。线条粗犷厚重，力能长鼎，如果与古印作比较就会感到古玺吕的“日庚都萃车马”的章法与其有相反 的地方 ，但经过融会贯通已 全是来氏的家数了。“大处落墨”，章法奇特，“大处”二字呈右下倾斜状，“落墨”二字比较平整，摆布 两半奇正相生，巧妙地统一同 来，此印用刀生辣淋漓，明显 是受汉将军印地影响，“大”字大块留红与其三个笔画较繁和字构成 蜡真假 强烈的对比。来氏对边缘的处理，常常 避免直线，并总让1 侧与边缘相连，白文印通边，白文 印则借边，如此1 来就使全印顿感舒畅通气。
“领略古法生别致 ”，全印以“古法”二字为中心，“法”字采用繁写，形成 1 种慎重 茂字密之感。摆布 两边虽然字数多少不等，仍然 能取得平衡。印中有三个“口”，或大或小或扁不尽相反 ，加上印中多处留红，使全印疏相映，灵动活泼。
“矢1 斋”1 印，前二字笔画特少，给布局形成 困境，而此印却是用人为的疏密的办法，采用异体字调整章法情势 。右下角用繁体“1 ”（壹）字压住阵脚，而“斋”反用简体，全印由于疏密的巧妙处理，顿感峰回路转，柳暗花明。
生肖印“阖家欢乐图”，集牛、龙、蛇、兔四种动物为1 印。介绍不定期氏的篆刻，不谈他的肖形印章，是不会面的。他终身 ，特别 在暮年 ，创作了在量的肖形印，内容广泛，有生肖、佛象、草虫故事、成语、新民歌等，尤以生肖印刻得地很多。而且，能1 反1 印1 肖的常规，可将全家数人的生肖容纳于方寸之间，前无古人，十分别致。此印共有四种生肖动物时，牛、兔以块面形成 形，用白文刻法，蛇、龙抽象 以线条为主，以白文 出之得对角真假 呼应之妙以极简练、概括的手法塑造了生动的抽象 。
Laichusheng (1903-1975), formerly known as Ji, is a rhino. Xiaoshan people in Zhejiang Province were born in Wuchang. He is a famous artist of poetry, calligraphy, painting and printing. His paintings are fresh and simple, concise and meaningful in style, which is unique in the modern flower and bird painting world. Calligraphy is clever, cursive script and official seal are most praised.
Laichusheng (1903-1975), formerly known as Ji, is a rhino. There are many nicknames, such as Negative Weng, Yijie, Muren, Feiye, Chufu, Huaidan, and so on. Later, the character of Yi was born, and it was also promoted. The name of the study is Rhino Room and Anzhoulou. Xiaoshan people in Zhejiang Province. Calligraphy is clever, cursive script and official seal are most praised. Qin and Han Dynasties are the masters of seal carving. They are close to Wu Xizai, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Junqing and Qi Jing. They can not fall behind their predecessors and start a new generation of printing style without falling into the trap of their predecessors. Mr. Qian Juntao, Vice President of Xiling Printing Society and a master of contemporary calligraphy, painting and seal carving, Zeng Yun said, "The sudden change of Lai's seal carving around the age of seventy has never been seen before. It is simple, old and vigorous. Although the two Wus (according to: refers to Wu Xizai and Wu Junqing), they should also be shunned. Qi Baishi claimed to be a reformer. However, it is inevitable that the marks of axe-chisel and the posture of fabrication could not be avoided. In the 1970s, Chu Sheng was the only one who could stand alone in the world of printing. It is the most appropriate comment.
After graduating from Zongwen Middle School in Hangzhou, his stepmother wanted to study law in Peking University. Because of the delay of his grandfather's death, she changed to Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts to study Chinese painting and got what she wanted. During his teaching, Mr. Pan Tianshou was deeply admired and influenced by his paintings and calligraphy. After graduating from the American College, he lived in Hangzhou, and Pan Gong also moved to Hangzhou to teach. After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, the family moved to Shanghai and became self-sufficient in the art of calligraphy, painting and seal carving. Later, he was transferred to a teaching post to support his family. Taste with colleagues to organize Southeast Painting and Calligraphy Society, regular elegant collection, to discuss arts and crafts. He was admitted to Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts in 1921. After graduation in 1924, he organized Yinshe in Hangzhou with Pan Tianshou, Jiang Danshu and Tang Yun to engage in calligraphy and painting activities. He moved to Shanghai in 1937 and organized Southeast Painting and Calligraphy Society. He was a teacher of Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts and Xinhua Academy of Fine Arts. In 1946, a solo exhibition was held in Shanghai "Chinese Painting Garden". He was a painter of Shanghai Academy of Chinese Painting in 1956. In 1962, Shanghai Museum of Literature and History was transferred. Member of China Artists Association. He was a member of the Shanghai Branch of the Association of Fine Arts and a standing member of the Shanghai Calligraphy Seal Carving Research Association.
Like all artists who are good at both painting and calligraphy, Wu Changshuo's proud disciple came to Chusheng to control his brush. He has excellent modelling ability, restrained and rich ink treatment, seemingly simple lines are full of resilience, and large areas of ink halo naturally, changing unexpected charm, which makes many of his works meaningful in simple. He inherited Wu Changshuo's tradition of concurrent calligraphy, painting and printing. His accomplishment in three aspects was quite even and could not be separated from Xuan Qi. He was one of the great breakthroughs made by Wu Changshuo's teachers. His calligraphy is clever, especially cursive and official scripts, which are the most praised. It combines many factors, such as tablet edition, statue, and Chinese wooden slips of the Six Dynasties, into the cursive and official scripts. The italic script is also influenced by Pan Tianshou, his teacher. It is not only simple and honest, but also smooth and smooth. Xun is a generation of people. Lai's seal carving is far from the master of Qin and Han Dynasty, close to Wu Xizai, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Qi Baishi, and so on. However, we can not fall into a rut and come up with new ideas. Its portrait seals are a combination of Han portraits and ancient portraits. They are unique in the world of printing.
Most of the paintings of Laichu Sheng are freehand paintings of flowers, birds, fish and insects, especially sketches. Because of his early study in Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts, influenced by teachers and friends, Xu Wei, the Eighth National Congress, Li Futang and other Ming and Qing freehand brushwork masters, near Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo and other people's painting methods, seals, lithographic brushwork into the painting, simple shape, dare to use thick ink heavy color, thick and clumsy, rich in gold and stone flavor. After the integration of temperament, form their own face, the pen and ink concise, bright color, meaningful style, fresh interest.
His friend Tang Yun once said, "Lai's calligraphy, painting and seal carving are all exquisite. And in the book, seal, Li, Zheng, grass are ripe to survive, vigorous and graceful; calm and spicy, momentum, indescribable, allow the promotion of contemporary masters; drawing from calligraphy, fresh and easy; carving knife, such as pen, fantastic, are not involved in the previous rules, the beginner is also. Although it is a comprehensive review of books, paintings and seals, it also points out the main characteristics of Chu Sheng's painting style, which can be called bosom friend.
Calligraphy and Painting Art
Characteristic of Calligraphy and Painting
In the modern art forest, Mr. Lai Chusheng is an artist with a distinct artistic style, who combines calligraphy, painting and printing. Mr. Tang Yun said, "Mr. Lai Chusheng's calligraphy, painting and seal carving are all exquisite, but in the book, seal, Li, Zheng and grass are all familiar with survival, vigorous and graceful, plain and spicy, momentum is magnificent, indescribable, allow to promote contemporary masters; drawing from calligraphy, fresh and horizontal; carving knife, such as a pen, very strange, are not involved in the previous rules, start life." Noodles, too. It can be used as a summary of Mr. Lai Chusheng's art.
Mr. Lai Chusheng is a versatile calligrapher. As far as the style of calligraphy is concerned, Zheng, Cao, Zhuan and Li all work, especially in the case of Cao and Li Guan. Mr. Lai's book is based on the Zodiac Week, then by-pass Quyin, flooding families, and eventually becoming his own face. The knot falls and falls on the side, sometimes new, the size of the word is long and short, dense and oblique, very rich posture. The pen is profound and magnificent, sharp and square fold, spiritual reflection, style glow, quite masculine beauty. Its official scripts are also distinctive in personality and style. Especially in the Han stele, wooden slips and Jinnong. The body is strong and vigorous, free and frank, with bold and unrestrained pen with the subtlety of Tibetan frontier, the zigzag is vivid without the feeling of floating and slippery. His wave, weight, length, rich in change. Skip-pen closure is often repeated and flipped, quick and powerful, with a high degree of skill and characteristics.
Mr. Lai Chusheng's paintings have the best reputation for flowers and birds, concise shape, dignified brush and ink, full of expression and prosperous business with one flower, one leaf, one bird and one fish. Mr. Lai attaches great importance to learning from his predecessors, serving the Eighth National Congress, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo and Qi Baishi. It also pays attention to observation and sketching in real life. His works often reach the artistic realm of calmness, indifference, leisure and meticulousness.
Skills of Calligraphy and Painting
Mr. Lai Chusheng's seal carvings are based on ancient seals and Chinese seals, supplemented by the Late Qing Dynasty school. The layout is uneven, interesting, sharp and magnificent. When Wu Jean-zhi, Wu Chang-shuo and Qi Baishi stand in the forest, you can find new ways to become your own face. Mr. A's seal seems to be rough-headed and carefully chiseled. In fact, each side's seal is a knife playing after repeated deliberation. Mr. A's artistic techniques, such as density, disparity, echo, falseness and reality, are skilled. Mr. Lai's portrait prints are well-known. Besides the zodiac, Buddha and human figures, there are also flowers, caterpillars and idiom stories. They are concise and full of expression. Mr. Xiao's portrait impression has three methods: stabilization, accuracy and ruthlessness. Its meaningful portrait impression is the result of refinement, exaggeration and sublimation through careful observation of objects.
"Chusheng" is a word he often used in his old age, especially when he likes to write "Sheng" as "door" with two short crosses. "Chusheng" has been engraved many times. Zhubai is both big and small, and each has its own merits. The most important feature of this seal is to use a knife to flow away the nature, seemingly casual, hand-to-hand. The word "Chu" has been changed from left to right to upper and lower, and the word "Sheng" has two doors, one high and one low. The two straight pens of "Chu" and "Sheng" are unified in comparison. The lower part of the whole printing leaves more red, but in order not to make it flat and dull, the lower edge is cut directly with a knife to create a bending trend. The slight attack on the large red ground appears sporadic white ground, forming a vast fragmentary beauty. The seal of Zhang Yongkai Seal in Wu County is divided into left and right lines. The font size is arbitrary and very natural. This square seal, similar to the other type of rectangular white self-use seal, "Chusheng is a new born and rising character", has the same ingenuity, taking the ancient seal around the edge of the interest, leaving red in the middle seems very natural and vivid. There is also a short episode in the engraving process of this self-use printing. According to Zhang Youbo, one of his students, after the stamp was printed, he suspected that there was too much red in the middle, so he responded by adding a straight line in the middle. This straight line makes a lot of sense. If you study it carefully, you can find that it can be sent out. Now the upper end of the straight line leans to the right and the lower end leans to the left. It is not a vertical line. In order to break the balance, several knife marks are struck with the angle of the knife on both sides and three knife ends respectively. In this way, an ordinary line has become a flexible line linking the left and right sides, full of emotional color, and an indispensable component of the printing surface. The author also slightly punched the left and right sides of the seal to make the edge sink, resulting in the connection between the left and right seals, all of which are for the sake of seeking novelty in the middle of the plane and seeking change. Lai's constitution and knife method have their own unique success. There are "Paintings of Laichu Sheng", "Calligraphy of Laichu Sheng", "Xiao Shape Printing of Ranxi Chamber" on the market.
Lao Tzu is written in the Hindi of "Chu Hou", which has been made into Zhu Bai's seal many times. In the printing of one side's folded article "thick, thin", this is also the embodiment of Lai's artistic viewpoint. According to the general law, it is not appropriate to stiffen the different styles and structures of the calligraphy in the creation of seal carving to make a miscellaneous presentation of the printing of dragon sets and small seal carvings. The word "place" in this seal comes from "Jingren Bell". There is another word "thick" in this clock, but it is narrow and long. The author abandoned this word and found a thick "thick" word in Ding. Although the two characters are different, they are integrated by the author's refinement and digestion. One long one short, scattered change. There is a rectangular blank in the head of the "tiger" of "place", which coincides with the big mouth at the bottom of the word "thick". "Thick" long line edge pressing, because the use of residual edge technique to avoid the repetition of two straight lines monotonous feeling to Chusheng seal blank, (red) residual edge is quite unique, it is worth our careful consideration.
"Interest to travel" seal, Zhang Faqi unique, the upper word "interest, absolute" is very large and pressing, "intersection" is relatively narrow, the word "interest" on the top of the head creates a dangerous phenomenon, people have a thrilling feeling. The word "you" is also under the word "absolute", so that the small word "yi" is embedded in it, leaving a blank in the middle of the full print, forming a close and sparse scene. Comparing with the ancient seal, it would be felt that the constitution of the ancient seal Lu's "Rigengdu Picking up Cars and Horses" is similar to that of the ancient seal Lu, but through the integration, it has been all the family members of Lai's family. "Big place drops ink", "big place" is inclined to the right, and "big place" is relatively flat. The left and right halves of the two characters are odd and positive, and they are combined skillfully. This print is vividly and incisively printed with a knife. It is evidently influenced by the Chinese General's imprint. The large block of "big" letters leaves red with their three strokes, which are more complicated and form a strong wax reality. Contrast. Lai's treatment of the edge often avoids straight lines and always connects one side to the edge. The white print passes through the edge while the Zhu print passes through the edge, which makes the whole print feel comfortable and breathable.
"Ears, eyes, hands and feet are light." Although the inscriptions are small seals, the rules of composition have acquired the beauty of the dislocation of Zhongding Yi instruments. Ear and eye occupy the least space, and I can understand that the word "Kangning" is exaggerated and presumptuous to occupy the central place of the whole seal, and the word "hand and foot light" is connected with each other. This kind of constitution can be found in the border seal introduced before "Lingjiang General Seal". Lai's knife method likes both punching and cutting, so the joy of punching knife and the vastness of cutting knife can be obtained simultaneously.
"Understanding the novelty of ancient fa-sheng", with the word "ancient fa" as the center, the word "fa" is written in a complicated way, resulting in a sense of stability and denseness. Even though the number of words varies from left to right, the balance can still be achieved. There are three "mouths" in the printing, which are different in size or size. In addition, there are many red spots in the printing, which makes the whole printing sparse and lively.
The first two strokes of the seal "Yayizhai" are very few, which makes the layout difficult. However, this seal is an artificial and dense way to adjust the constitutional situation by using variant characters. In the lower right corner, the traditional "one" (one) character is used to suppress the position, while the simplified form is used instead of "Zhai". Because of the clever and dense processing, the whole seal turns round with a sudden sense of peak, and the willows are dark and bright.
The Zodiac seal "Happy picture of the whole family" is composed of four animals: cattle, dragon, snake and rabbit. Introducing the seal carving of the irregular clan, without mentioning his chop seal, will not meet. In his life, especially in his later years, he created a large number of portrait seals, with a wide range of contents, such as the zodiac, Buddha, caterpillar stories, idioms, new folk songs, etc., especially the zodiac seals are very much engraved. Moreover, it can reverse the rule of printing a picture one by one, and can accommodate the zodiac of several people in the whole family between cubic inches, unprecedented, very unique. There are four kinds of zodiac animals in this seal. Bulls and rabbits are shaped by blocks. The images of snakes and dragons are carved in Baiwen. The vivid images are created by Zhu Wenzhi's diagonal echoes of emptiness and reality.